Thomas von Villach's Frescoes for St. Andrä at Thörl-Maglern
Dr. Birgit Stegbauer
One of the most outstanding examples of late Gothic fresco painting in Carinthia is Thomas von Villach's frescoes for St. Andrä at Thörl-Maglern. Thörl-Maglern is situated at the junction of Slovenia, Austria and Italy. If you take the state road from Arnoldstein in the direction of Tarvisio, this is the last village before the border to Italy. Furthermore, Thörl-Maglern is a gateway (or Tor or, spoken in dialect, "Thörl") from the Kanal valley to the Gail valley.
St. Andrä stands a little bit aloof from the little village on a green-field site and it is only a small church. One enters the old church building through a modern, glassy vestibule. From there you step into a dim, low part of the church, with no windows, just under the church tower, from where you glimpse the light, open nave and the choir. You can see the two side altars and the high altar, all from the 17th century, and the fine sculpture of Our Lady of the Rosary by Hans Finkh, also a work of art from the 17th century. However, you will look in vain for the famous frescoes!
Then, once you enter the choir of the church, you'll be overwhelmed by the frescoes, the richness of the colours and the multitude of presentations. A Last Judgment decorates the whole rear side of the triumphal arch. All vaults of the choir are decorated, amongst others with the four Evangelists and angelic musicians. The sacrament house, which is built into the northern wall of the choir, continues with an illusionistic architecture.
The centrepiece of St. Andrä's frescoes, however, is a Passion with a most exceptional symbolical crucifixion, an illustration of a so-called Living Cross, which means that hands "sprout" from the four endings of the crossbars.
The hand at the lower end of the crossbar breaks open the gate to Hell, while the hand at the upper end of the crossbar opens Heaven's gate. The hand at the right end of the vertical crossbar dethrones the personification of the Old Testament - she is a young, blind woman with a sword pierced through her body who rides on a maltreated monkey. The hand at the left end of the crossbar crowns the personification of the New Testament; this young woman rides on the symbols of the four Evangelists and holds a model of the church in her hands.
This is, to be sure, quite a rare type of presentation, but, Living Crosses with exactly the same symbols can be found both north and south of the Alps from the 15th to the 17th century (Italian: croce vivante, French: croix vivante). In a departure from "the" stereotypical Living Cross, the one in Thörl-Maglern merges with an illustration of Heaven, shown with its seven flame-like angelic choirs and godfather on top. Thus, the hierarchical order of the medieval world is mirrored even in the presentation of Heaven.
When the frescoes, which lay hidden under several layers of paint until the 1940ies, were unveiled, an inscription with the name 'Thomas' was found. From then on, the frescoes were attributed to the painter Thomas von Villach. The latter owned a workshop at Villach in the second half of the 15th century. This workshop, which was commissioned to create church decorations such as frescoes, panel paintings and altars all over Carinthia, is nowadays known as 'school of Villach'. The frescoes were most probably painted between 1482 and 1489.
It's good to know:
Catholic parish St. Andrä
When you drive through Thörl-Magerln in the direction of Italy, follow the sign "St. Andrä" and turn left. From there you can already see the church.
On October 5th CIC plans a walking tour to Thörl-Maglern and the Slizza-Schlucht. If you are interested in please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.